Implementing Sustained Silent Reading to Produce Gains in Reading Achievement and Reading Attitude
Sustained Silent Reading (SSR), an independent voluntary reading program, has been implemented in classrooms for over sixty years, however its effectiveness in improving reading achievement and reading attitude has been challenged by teachers and researchers; most notably, the National Reading Panel (2000). Research studies, meta-analyses, theory, and professional accounts of SSR reviewed showed student gains in both reading achievement and reading attitude. A consensus on how to design and implement a successful SSR program was an issue throughout the literature. The successfully implemented programs were analyzed to develop recommendations and guidelines for designing and implementing a SSR program appropriate for students in Kindergarten through 12th grade. Findings suggest successful programs provide a quiet, uninterrupted, and comfortable environment, access to books in the classroom, freedom of book selection, teacher modeling and an absence of evaluative activities, with additional options recommended based on student age.